# Advanced Battle Mechanics Part 1: Buffs & Debuffs

*With every new batch of daemons released, we see more and more interesting combinations of buffs, debuffs and status ailments in skills and abilities. This three-part guide will delve into the mathematics behind the damage.*

*This first installment will cover stats, buffs, debuffs, how they affect damage in battle, and how they stack.
*

Links to other parts:

Part 2: Effective Stats – coming soon!

Part 3: Status Ailments – coming soon!

# WHAT TYPES OF BUFFS AND DEBUFFS ARE THERE?

As you’re probably well aware, there are a number of different types of buffs (and debuffs) in the game. These can be split into three types.

#### DIRECT BUFFS/DEBUFFS:

These buffs will directly affect the damage dealt by each attack.

**DMG dealt**: Increases/decreases damage done by normal attack DMG, skill DMG and crit DMG.

**Normal DMG:** Increases damage done by normal attacks (*bond only*).

**Skill DMG:** Increases damage done by skill attacks.

**DMG taken: **Decreases/increases damage taken from all forms of dmg, including DoT from status ailments.

**Crit DMG**: Increases damage done by critical hits.

**DEF**: Decreases/increases damage taken from all forms of dmg, including DoT from status ailments.

**Level:** Increases the level of a daemon.

#### INDIRECT BUFFS/DEBUFFS:

These buffs will not affect the damage dealt by each attack, but will affect the **effective damage** (to be covered in part 2).

**Crit** **Rate**: Increases the chance of a critical hit.

**Attack Speed:** Decreases/Increases normal attack and skill casting animation times, and time between casts.

**Max HP:** Increases maximum HP.

**HP Restoration:** Allows for passive restoration of HP over time.

#### UTILITY BUFFS:

These buffs are for resource farming, and will not affect the damage at all.

**Soulstones**: Increases soulstones gained.

**Drop** rate: Increases the battle reward drop rate.

**EXP**: Increases EXP gained.

## HOW DO BUFFS/DEBUFFS STACK?

All buffs and debuffs are capable of stacking, but he big question is, how? The first step to recognise that buffs/debuffs are applied in 3 layers: base stats, levels and everything else.

Buffs in the **same layer stack additively**, whereas buffs in **different layers stack multiplicatively**. Buffs of **different types will also stack multiplicatively**. Debuffs work in the exact same way, but will use subtraction/division instead of addition/multiplication.

It is important to note that **most buffs will not stack indefinitely**. There appears to be a cap on how much different buffs can be stacked to, which is different for each event type (Story/CQ/Tower/WB/PvP).

Now that we know how buffs and debuffs stack, let’s have a look at some examples involving direct buffs:

**EXAMPLE #1: BASIC BUFFS**

Let’s start off with everyone’s favourite kitty, none other than Muramasa. Here’s her kit at level 70:

ATK: 9288 | HP: 6869

Skill: Deals 2701 DMG to 2 enemies.

Ability: Moderately increases DMG dealt (15%).

If we take her into a battle where the team gets a 10% bonus to DMG Dealt for type advantage, the damage that she will deal with her skill is:

As you can see, Muramasa’s ability stacks additively with the type advantage for a 25% buff to her skill damage. Now, let’s give her a +5% Skill DMG bond. The calculation for her skill damage then becomes this:

In this case, the Skill DMG from her bond will stack multiplicatively with the DMG Dealt from her ability and type advantage. Note that 2701 x (1+0.05) = 2832, which is the skill damage that is displayed on Muramasa’s description after bonding.

**EXAMPLE #2: LEVEL BUFFS**

Now, let’s look at an example that involves level buffs. At level 90, Dojigiri Yasutsuna (Bride)’s kit looks like this:

ATK: 9428| HP: 10978

Skill: Deals 2361 DMG to further enemies.

Dojigiri has an ability that raises her level by 10 when Shuten Doji is on the team. If Shuten Doji is indeed present on the team, the game will take into account her new level (90 + 10 = 100) when applying other buffs. At this level, her stats are:

ATK: 10191| HP: 11867

Skill: Deals 2551 DMG to further enemies.

If we put 2 skill bonds on her, and take her into a battle where she has a type *dis*advantage, her skill damage will then be as follows:

**EXAMPLE #3: COMBINATION BUFFS**

Now, let’s look at more complex situation which involves a combination of bonds, special bonds, skills, abilities and type advantages all rolled into one- more reflective of what would happen in story or tower. For this, we’ll use a level 90 Ohina:

ATK: 12410| HP: 8949

Skill: Deals 1746 DMG to the all enemies.

Ability: Moderately increases Crit DMG of all Festival Dolls (15%), sharply increases DMG Dealt by Festival Dolls as leader (20%).

Let’s give Ohina two 5-star ranged Animas as bonds (+7.5% Skill DMG each), as well as Odairi, who she has a special bond with her (+4% Normal DMG, +10% Skill DMG), and make her the leader of a team that also includes New Year Game, Poison S. Brew, Azukiarai and some other daemons (assume a type advantage of 18%). If, on the final wave, Ohina receives two buffs from Azukiarai and lands a crit with her skill, the damage done by her skill crit will be:

This is a pretty complex calculation! However, you should still be able to see how the different buffs stack.

**EXAMPLE #4: COMBINATION BUFFS & DEBUFFS**

Finally, let’s look at an intense combination of both buffs and debuffs in a situation like Conquest. For this, we’ll use a team consisting of Freyr, Leonardo da Vinci, Katsushika Hokusai, Titanium Elf and Socrates, with Philosopher’s Stone and Old Clock Chronos in reserve (all at MLB). Our main attacker will be Leonardo, whose kit at Lv. 90 looks like this:

ATK: 13365| HP: 9546

Skill: Deals 5793 DMG to enemy with the highest ATK.

Ability: Sharply increases Crit DMG (35%), sharply increases DMG Dealt (20%)

Let’s say the skill combo for this team is Freyr, Katsu, Socrates, Titanium, Titanium, Leonardo, Leonardo, Leonardo. Assuming that Leonardo has three 5-star ranged Divinas as bonds (+7.5% Skill DMG each) and lands a crit, the total damage dealt should theoretically be:

If Leonardo were to be hit by an enemy skill which reduces DMG dealt by 46%, then the final damage would be:

Again, these are complex calculations. Note that Titanium’s increase damage taken debuff acts like a second set of DMG Dealt buffs, which is not surprising seeing that they’re two sides of the same coin. In fact, most debuffs will work like this – the only exception being decrease DEF debuffs, which simply increase the final damage dealt by the skill value (as you can see by Socrates’ debuff in each set of calcs).

**SO WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN?**

These mechanics have a few implications for buffing. First of all, since skills and abilities stack additively, you may want to explore the use of different types of buffs AND debuffs to increase your damage, as multiplicative stacking generally results in larger boosts than additive stacking (but not always!). In addition, it means that certain abilities will seem to be less effective (particularly skill DMG and DMG dealt), since they will stack additively with bonds rather than multiplicatively.

*Stay tuned for the next installment on effective stats!*

hi, very helpfull but it seems that some formulas do not appear, don’t know if it is just me

Hmmmm….. all these numbers and figures made my brain hurt…..I’ll continue the pointy end will go into the other guy routine 😀

Because its the same type of buff. “Sharply increases skill damage” and “+7.5% skill damage” – both are skill damage buffs. If her passive said “Sharply increases damage dealt” (e.g like Leo), then it would multiply with the skill bonds.

thanks for this amazing article. I have a little question, i have a qilin, how does a crit rate stack plz§? ^^

Hi, thanks for this very helpful guide.

A little doubt: in the #2 example, you included the normal DMG in the total damage calculation, while in the #3, with Ohina, you neglected it. I thought it was because it was equal to 1, but Odairi increases the normal DMG by 0.04, so I would have written an additional (1 + 0.04). Am i wrong?

In example #2, I was calculating Ravenna’s final attack, which affects normal attacks (hence affected by normal DMG bonds). In example #3, I was calculating Ohina’s skill damage (not affected by normal DMG bonds).

Thank you for the guide. I forsee this being referred back to quite a lot as we try to optimise our damage output.

2 quick questions: What does LB2 Ravenna’s package look like with 1 5* melee bond and snow white special bond? Also, by the looks of the final calculation Socrates decrease DEF debuff seems less useful than and increase DMG taken?

LB 2 Ravenna

ATK: 9682| HP: 9870

Skill: Deals 5888 damage to enemy, reduces DMG dealt by 51%

It depeonds on the situation. Socrates is less useful for large, single hits (eg. skills, conquest), but far more useful for normal attacks which do ~1k damage each (he effectively doubles your whole team’s normal attack damage).

Thank you

Has the actual crit rate been find out yet?

PS: Thanks for the detailed giude.

It hasn’t been found out yet. If you know and can support your claims, do tell us 🙂

I mean 22.5% range and 7.5% melee which we have used all along seems pretty accurate doesn’t it? Shall I count 1,000 attacks for fun?

Excellent guide, very good job. Some time ago I had a doubt, I hope you can solve it. I have read in some parts, or comments that stacking a type of debuff, to be more exact type “Increase DMG received”, could only be stacked up to 80%. And with two skills of Amano / TE was enough to reach the maximum of the debuff, even it loses efficiency. What of this is true ?, otherwise what would be the true maximum stacking of this type of debuff?

First of all, Thanks.

Buffs are capable of stacking far beyond the 80% that was originally reported by support- daemons like Aya Waka and Diaochan, as well as high damage rolls in conquest are proof of that.

Defensive buffs only decrease 80%. Any more than that only serves to counteract offensive buffs. Damage dealt buffs/debuffs counter each other, and damage taken buff/debuff does the same, as the post shows above. But defensive only stacks up to about 80% actual reduction. Offensive buffs stack higher, as we have seen.

In the example 4# ,I thought Elf debuffs work multiplicatively ,such as (1+0.57) x (1+0.57) ,not (1+0.57+0.57)

Nope, identical buffs/debuffs (ie. Buffs of the same type in the same layer) stack additively. We’ve also confirmed this through testing.

Oh thanks for clearing this for me 🙂 So if Elf use skill alone 2 times,she will deal 3447 x (1+0.57+0.57) DMG in 2nd skill use,right ?

Nvm .I found my answer,debuffs and skill DMG are different things 😛